تمرین و تست vocabulary-2--
نوشته شده توسط مرکز آزمون

Vocabulary TEST TWO

Direction : In question 1-15 each sentence has an underlined word or phrase. Below each sentence are four other words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). You are to choose the one word or phrase that best keeps the meaning of the original sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word or phrase .

1. Sharpshooter Annie Oakley performed astonishing feats of marksmanship as the star of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show beginning in 1885.

 (A) astute

 (C) archaic

 (B) astounding

 (D) articulate

2. Because it withstands the effects of high temperatures, rhenium is a valuable ingredient in certain alloys.

 (A) discharges

 (C) resists

 (B) reduces

 (D) withholds

3. The bleaching of laundry by sunlight is at least partly a photochemical process.

 (A) airing

 (C) whitening

 (B) drying

 (D) scrubbing

4. The stories of Sarah Orne Jewett are considered by many to be more authentically regional than those of Bret Harte.

 (A) blatantly

 (C) intentionally

 (B) genuinely

 (D) thoroughly

5. The most pressing problem any economic system faces is bow to use its scarce resources.

 (A) puzzling

 (C) terrifying

 (B) controversial

 (D) urgent

6. Diffusion is the spontaneous spreading of matter caused by the random movement of molecules.

 (A) patternless

 (C) constant

 (B) whirling

 (D) rampant

7. The firm of Bonnin and Morris in Philadelphia was probably the first American company to manufacture porcelain.

 (A) silverware

 (C) china

 (B) crystal

 (D) linen

8. The attack on Fort Sumter near Charleston provoked a sharp response from the North, which led to the American Civil War.

 (A) demanded

 (C) expedited

 (B) elicited

 (D) defied

9. The Food and Drug Administration classifies as a cosmetic any product whose single purpose is to improve a person’s appearance.

 (A) obvious

 (C) exclusive

 (B) simple

 (D) assumed

10. Natural silk is obtained by unraveling the thin threads of the cocoons spun by the caterpillars of the silkworm moth.

 (A) unwinding

 (C) undulating

 (B) unleashing

 (D) undertaking

11. The Klondike was the scene of one of the most colossal gold rushes the world has ever known.

 (A) location

 (C) event

 (B) view

 (D) landscape

12. The rose may grow as a low bush or as a tree, depending on how it is pruned.

 (A) planted

 (C) watered

 (B) nourished

 (D) trimmed

13. Samuel Morse requested from the Congress of the United States an appropriation to construct an experimental telegraph line.

 (A) guidance

 (C) property

 (B) funding

 (D) power

14. The amenities of civilization are left behind when an individual embarks on a camping trip in a remote area.

 (A) activities

 (C) comforts

 (B) rules

 (D) signs

15. The upside-down catfish is the only fish that habitually swims on its back.

 (A) rhythmically

 (C) customarily

 (B) intermittently

 (D) casually



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تمرین و تست vocabulary-1--
نوشته شده توسط مرکز آزمون

Vocabulary TEST ONE

Direction : In question 1-15 each sentence has an underlined word or phrase. Below each sentence are four other words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). You are to choose the one word or phrase that best keeps the meaning of the original sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word or phrase.

1. Since the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 made Milwaukee a major port, both its population and area have increased greatly.

 (A) popularity

 (C) number of residents

 (B) accessibility

 (D) level of culture

2. The grasshopper is an insect that can leap about twenty times the length of its own body.

 (A) jump

 (C) hear

 (B) see

 (D) call

3. In violin making, the choice of the wood is crucial.

 (A) grain

 (C) resonance

 (B) selection

 (D) shape

4. Most sound vibrations arrive at the eardrum by way of the auditory canal.

 (A) search for

 (C) tickle

 (B) reach

 (D) whisper to

5. Sequoya, a Native American who was born about 1770, formed an alphabet of eighty-six letters that enabled him to put the oral Cherokee language into writing.

 (A) secret

 (C) spoken

 (B) complex

 (D) ancient

6. As photographic techniques have become more sophisticated, the scope of their application has expanded enormously.

 (A) diversely

 (C) appealingly

 (B) flagrantly

 (D) tremendously

7. A goal of modem dance often is to express the dancer’s innermost feelings and emotions.

 (A) slightest

 (C) most personal

 (B) rarest

 (D) most difficult

8. A cup of whole milk provides roughly one hundred sixty-six calories of energy.

 (A) discreetly

 (C) barely

 (B) approximately

 (D) coarsely

9. Once started, a chain reaction sustains itself without further outside influence.

 (A) endless

 (C) interruptive

 (B) measurable

 (D) additional

10. Honey guides, or indicator birds, collaborate with honey badgers in seeking out bee colonies.

 (A) work together

 (C) live

 (B) travel north

 (D) compete

11. During the 1800’s and early 1900’s, new academic disciplines such as chemistry and physics made great headway.

 (A) sacrifice

 (C) preconceptions

 (B) forefront

 (D) progress

12. In swimming. a more exact coordination of muscles is required than in other sports.

 (A) a swifter

 (C) a more automatic

 (B) a more precise

 (D) an easier

13. Soot sticks to anything it touches.

 (A) points to

 (C) clings to

 (B) blackens

 (D) streaks

14. For most allergies, the best treatment is elimination of the bothersome substances from the sensitive person’s environment.

 (A) unnatural

 (C) irritating

 (B) dangerous

 (D) surrounding

15. Glaciers terminate where the rate of ice loss is equivalent to the forward advance of the glacier.

 (A) stop

 (C) crack

 (B) turn

 (D) rotate

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Questions 41-50

Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles along with breakthroughs in satellite technology and computer equipment have overcome some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment. Without a vehicle, divers often became sluggish and their mental concentration was limited. Because of undersea pressure that affected their speech organs, communication among divers was difficult or impossible. But today, most oceanographers make direct observations by means of instruments that are lowered into the ocean, from samples taken from the water, or from photographs made by orbiting satellites. Direct observations of the ocean floor are made not only by divers but also by deep-diving submarines and aerial photography. Some of the submarines can dive to depths of more than seven miles and cruise at depths of fifteen thousand feet. In addition, radio-equipped buoys can be operated by remote control in order to transmit information back to land-based laboratories, often via satellite. Particularly important are data about water temperature, currents and weather. Satellite photographs can show the distribution of sea ice, oil slicks, and cloud formations over the ocean. Maps created from satellite pictures can represent the temperature and the color of the ocean's surface, enabling researchers to study the ocean currents. Furthermore, computers help oceanographers to collect and analyze data from submarines and satellites. By creating a model of the ocean's movement and characteristics, scientists can predict the patterns and possible effects of the ocean on the environment.

Recently, many oceanographers have been relying more on satellites and computers than on research ships or even submarine vehicles because they can supply a greater range of information more quickly and more efficiently. Some of mankind's most serious problems, especially those concerning energy and food, may be solved with the help of observations made possible by this new technology.

41. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?

(A) Technological advances in oceanography

(B) Communication among divers

(C) Direct observation of the ocean floor

(D) Undersea vehicles

42. The word "sluggish" in line 3 is closest in meaning to

(A) nervous

(B) confused

(C) slow moving

(D) very weak

43. Divers have had problems in communicating underwater because

(A) the pressure affected their speech organs

(B) the vehicles they used have not been perfected

(C) they did not pronounce clearly

(D) the water destroyed their speech organs

44. This passage suggests that the successful exploration of the ocean depends upon

(A) vehicles as well as divers

(B) radios that divers use to communicate

(C) controlling currents and the weather

(D) the limitations of diving equipment

45. Undersea vehicles

(A) are too small for a man to fit inside

(B) are very slow to respond

(C) have the same limitations that divers have

(D) make direct observations of the ocean floor

46. The word "cruise" in line 10 could best be replaced by

(A) travel at a constant speed

(B) function without problems

(C) stay in communication

(D) remain still

47. How is a radio-equipped buoy operated?

(A) By operators inside the vehicle in the part underwater

(B) By operators outside the vehicle on a ship

(C) By operators outside the vehicle on a diving platform

(D) By operators outside the vehicle in a laboratory on shore

48. Which of the following are NOT shown in satellite photographs?

(A) The temperature of the ocean's surface

(B) Cloud formations over the ocean

(C) A model of the ocean's movements

(D) The location of sea ice

49. The word "those" in line 22 refers to

(A) energy and food

(B) problems

(C) observations

(D) vehicles

50. According to the author, what are some of the problems the underwater studies may eventually resolve?

(A) Weather and temperature control

(B) Food and energy shortages

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Questions 31-40

According to the controversial sunspot theory, great storms on the surface of the sun hurl streams of solar particles into the atmosphere, causing a shift in the weather on earth.

A typical sunspot consists of a dark central umbra surrounded by a lighter penumbra of light and dark threads extending out from the center like the spokes of a wheel. Actually, the sunspots are cooler than the rest of the photosphere, which may account for their color. Typically, the temperature in a sunspot umbra is about 4000, whereas the temperature in a penumbra registers 5500 К, and the granules outside the spot are 6000 К.

Sunspots range in size from tiny granules to complex structures with areas stretching for billions of square miles. About 5 percent of the spots are large enough so that they can be seen without instruments; consequently, observations of sunspots have been recorded for several thousand years.

Sunspots have been observed in arrangements of one to more than one hundred spots, but they tend to occur in pairs. There is also a marked tendency for the two spots of a pair to have opposite magnetic polarities. Furthermore, the strength of the magnetic field associated with any given sunspot is closely related to the spot's size.

Although there is no theory that completely explains the nature and function of sunspots, several models attempt to relate the phenomenon to magnetic fields along the lines of longitude from the north and south poles of the sun.

31. What is the author's main purpose in the passage?

(A) To propose a theory to explain sunspots

(B) To describe the nature of sunspots

(C) To compare the umbra and the penumbra in sunspots

(D) To argue for the existence of magnetic fields in sunspots

32. The word "controversial" in line 1 is closest in meaning to

(A) widely accepted

(B) open to debate

(C) just introduced

(D) very complicated

33. Solar particles are hurled into space by

(A) undetermined causes

(B) disturbances of wind

(C) small rivers on the surface of the sun

(D) changes in the earth's atmosphere

34. The word "particles" in line 2 refers to

(A) gas explosions in the atmosphere

(B) light rays from the sun

(C) liquid streams on the sun

(D) small pieces of matter from the sun

35. How can we describe matter from the sun that enters the earth's atmosphere?

(A) Very small

(B) Very hot

(C) Very bright

(D) Very hard

36. The sunspot theory is

(A) not considered very important

(B) widely accepted

(C) subject to disagreement

(D) relatively new

37. The word "they" in line 9 refers to

(A) structures

(B) spots

(C) miles

(D) granules

38. The word "consequently" in line 10 could best be replaced by

(A) as a result

(B) nevertheless

(C) without doubt

(D) in this way

39. In which configuration do sunspots usually occur?

(A) In one spot of varying size

(B) In a configuration of two spots

(C) In arrangements of one hundred or more spots

(D) In groups of several thousand spots

40. How are sunspots explained?

(A) Sunspots appear to be related to magnetic fields on the earth.

(B) Sunspots may be related to magnetic fields that follow longitudinal lines on the sun.

(C) Sunspots are explained by storms that occur on the earth.

(D) Sunspots have no theory or model to explain them.

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Questions 21-30

Although stage plays have been set to music since the era of the ancient Greeks, when the dramas of Sophocles and Aeschylus were accompanied by lyres and flutes, the usually accepted date for the beginning of opera as we know it is 1600. As part of the celebration of the marriage of King Henry IV of France to the Italian aristocrat Maria de Medici, the Florentine composer Jacopo Peri produced his famous Euridice, generally considered to be the first opera. Following his example, a group of Italian musicians, poets, and noblemen called the Camerata began to revive the style of musical story that had been used in Greek tragedy. The Camerata took most of the plots for their operas from Greek and Roman history and mythology, writing librettos or dramas for music. They called their compositions opera in musica or musical works. It is from this phrase that the word "opera" is borrowed.

For several years, the center of opera was Florence, but gradually, during the baroque period, it spread throughout Italy. By the late 1600s, operas were being written and performed in Europe, especially in England, France, and Germany. But, for many years, the Italian opera was considered the ideal, and many non-Italian composers continued to use Italian librettos. The European form de-emphasized the dramatic aspect. New orchestral effects and even ballet were introduced under the guise of opera. Composers gave in to the demands of singers, writing many operas that were nothing more than a succession of brilliant tricks for the voice. Complicated arias, recitatives, and duets evolved. The aria, which is a long solo, may be compared to a song in which the characters express their thoughts and feelings. The recitative, which is also a solo, is a recitation set to music whose purpose is to continue the story line. The duet is a musical piece written for two voices which may serve the function of either an aria or a recitative.


21. This passage is a summary of

(A) opera in Italy

(B) the Camerata

(C) the development of opera

(D) Euridice

22. According to this passage, when did modern opera begin?

(A) In the time of the ancient Greeks

(B) In the fifteenth century

(C) At the beginning of the sixteenth century

(D) At the beginning of the seventeenth century

23. The word "it" in line 3 refers to

(A) opera

(B) date

(C) era

(D) music

24. According to the author, what did Jacopo Peri write?

(A) Greek tragedy

(B) The first opera

(C) The opera Maria de Medici

(D) The opera The Camerata

25. The author suggests that Euridice was produced

(A) in France

(B) originally by Sophocles and Aeschylus

(C) without much success

(D) for the wedding of King Henry IV

26. What was the Camerata?

(A) A group of Greek musicians

(B) Musicians who developed a new musical drama based upon Greek drama

(C) A style of music not known in Italy

(D) The name given to the court of King Henry IV

27. The word "revive" in line 7 could best be replaced by

(A) appreciate

(B) resume

(C) modify

(D) investigate

28. The word "plots" in line 8 is closest in meaning to

(A) locations

(B) instruments

(C) stories

(D) inspiration

29. From what did the term "opera" derive?

(A) Greek and Roman history and mythology

(B) Non-Italian composers

(C) The Italian phrase that means "musical works"

(D) The ideas of composer Jacopo Peri

30. Which of the following is an example of a solo?

(A) A recitative

(B) A duet

(C) An opera

(D) A lyre

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